Glossary of Terms

30o offset Electrodes Is an electrode that is used with a welder arm having an angled hole. This allows for extra reach into the parts being welded. ://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/30-degree-offset-electrodes      
A          
AWS J1.3/J1.3M American Welding Society (AWS) published specifications for materials used in resistance welding electrodes and tooling.        
Absolute System A CNC machining system that refers to all positional dimensions in reference to a shared datum point; includes both feedback and input.        
Accumulator An Air Storage Tank mounted on the Resistance Welding Machine which supplies consistent air pressure regardless of fluctuations in the Plant Air System.        
Age Hardening Also Precipitation Hardening. A process of increasing the hardness and strength by the precipitation of particles of a phase from a supersaturated solid solution alloy. The hardening cycle usually consists of heating or annealing at a temperature sufficiently high to maintain solid solution and so heating a temperature lower than the solution anneal to the effect thru precipitation.        
Aging Various surface treatments that can be done to copper to produce an “aged” or “antique” look. Also, see age hardening, sometimes referrd to as aging.        
Air-over-Oil A System which converts standard available Plant Pressure to a high Welding Force in a compact Weld Gun.        
Air Cooled Cables Air Cooled Cables (DJ) provide an economical alternative for lighter duty applications not requiring water cooled cables. The length is measured from the bolt hole centers on straight or 45° terminals. On terminals with 90° bends, measure to the extreme outside edge. On terminals with two holes, measure to the center of the outer holes. https://www.cadicompany.com/accessories/air-cooled-cables      
Alloy A substance that has metallic properties and is composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys      
Allowance The additional material provided on casting and forging surfaces to ensure a minimum dimension or to permit machining to the specified finish dimension.         
Alloying Element An element added to a metal that effects changes in structure and properties.          
American Welding Society Short for American Welding Society who strives to advance the science, technology, and application of welding and allied joining and cutting processes worldwide. Also to establish a classification system to identify copper alloys having similar mechanical and electrical properties.         
Ampere In Resistance Welding, an electrical unit of measurement depicting the required Weld Intensity.        
Analog Referring to a CNC machining system that utilizes electrical voltage ratios or magnitudes to represent physical axis positions.        
Anneal or In Resistance Welding, slowly cool the Base Metals at the weld interface using a lower post-secondary heat so as to eliminate cracking and brittleness at or near the welded joint.        
Annealing A process that involves the heating and cooling of a cold-rolled substrate, making it softer and easier to form.        
Axis The relative movements of a workpiece or precision CNC machining tool that moves along a primary direction, consisting of three linear axes, which are at ninety-degree angles from each other; the X, Y for horizontal movement, and Z for vertical movement.        
Axis Inhibit A characteristic of a numerically controlled unit that gives CNC machine work operators the ability to withhold command information from CNC machining and CNC milling tool slides.         
Axis Inversion (or Mirror Image) This CNC machining service command procedure is used to create a reverse or mirrored part by reversing the plus and minus values along a given axis; mirror imaging makes a left-oriented part using a right-handed oriented tool path; circular interpolation also reverses.        
B          
Back-Up Electrode Typically used for "Cosmetic" or "Markless" Welds. A large flat Electrode makes contact with the exterior Base Metal during the welding process to provide a return path for Welding Current. The end result is a  Spot Weld that is nearly invisible https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/backup-and-swivel-electrodes      
Bar A metal piece that is formed from a billet to form a round, hexagonal, square, or rectangular shape.        
Bend Lengthwise deformation that occurs during forging or secondary operations, such as trimming.        
           
Bending The changing of the shape of sheet metal by utilizing pairs of forming rollers in succession. Bending changes the thickness of the metal only at the bend radius, at which point a slight thinning occurs.        
Billet In ferrous metals, A semi-finished, usually hot-rolled, uniform section metal product. Billets are relatively larger than bars for the most part. Block - The forging operation in which metal is progressively formed to general desired shape and contour by means of an impression die. A billet for nonferrous (copper) alloys may be a casting required for extrusion.         
Bloom A semi-finished product of square or round cross section. This term is sometimes used interchangeably with "billet". Normally associated with ferrous metals.         
Brake Forming A type of bending that can be used on sheet, strip or plate.        
Brass A copper alloy, primarily containing zinc from 15 - 40%.        
           
Brazing  A high-heat (above 840 F), metal method that uses a filler material to make a bond between two metals. The filler is melted to a temperature below the melting points of the materials being joined.        
Bronze A generic term for some copper alloys, primarily containing tin or other metals such as aluminum, silicon, or manganese.         
Butt Weld  A butt weld joint is formed by placing two pieces of metal end-to-end and then welding along the join. Importantly, in a butt joint, the surfaces of the workpieces being joined are on the same plane, and weld metal remains within the planes of the surfaces, thus the workpieces are nearly parallel and do not overlap.         
Button or Socket Tips Button Electrodes are also known as Socket Tips and are made to fit into a Paddle Holder. Their low profile allows for welding in tight spaces. Button Electrodes are available with a flat nose, truncated cone nose, offset nose, and radius nose shapes.        
C          
C Gun A Weld Gun with a fixed "C" shaped Secondary. Weld Force is transmitted directly from the movable Electrode to the Stationary Electrode        
CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design / Computer Aided Manufacturing; this is the use of computers to assist in both CNC tool developments and CNC manufacturing phases.        
Cadi Coppr-Lube Coppr-Lube is a paste-like electrically conductive lubricant that provides an effective solution to prevent galling and seizing of components in resistance welding environments. https://www.cadicompany.com/accessories/cadi-coppr-lube      
Cap Electrode An Electrode used in a production welding environment. Requires a Shank. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/male-welding-caps-and-shanks      
Cascade In Resistance Welding, to fire more than one Welding Transformer in one Welding Sequence using multiple SCRs.        
Casting Metal shapes are produced from pouring molten metal into a mold and waiting for it to cool and solidify into the desired shape.        
Circumferential Seam Weld A welded joint around the circumference of two or more overlapping Base Metals.        
Cleat  A small copper strip that is used as a fastener for sheet copper components.        
Closed Loop Feedback Typically used in Mid-Frequency DC Resistance Welding. A method of process control where the Secondary Output is monitored and managed in real time during the entire Welding sequence to produce optimal Welded Joint Characteristics.        
Cold Forging The process of hammering metal into shape at room temperature.        
Cold Rolled A flat-rolled metal sheet whose final thickness was reduced and achieved by rolling it at room temperature.        
           
Cold Working  The process of changing the form or cross-section of a piece of metal at a temperature below the softening or crystallization point, but commonly at or about room temperature. It includes rolling, drawing, pressing, and stretching. Cold working typically increases the hardness and tensile strength while reducing ductility.         
Conduction Angle A Function of an AC Resistance Welding Control. The precise moment in time at a specific Amplitude of the 50 or 60 Hz incoming Sine Wave in which the SCR begins Conducting to generate the required intensity of Welding Current        
Constant Current A type of Closed Loop Feedback where the Secondary Welding Current remains steady regardless of changes in Material Resistance, Inductive Losses (Part entering the throat depth), or Line Voltage Fluctuations        
Consumable Typically, an Electrode. The "throw-away" component of a Resistance Welding Machine        
Copper Copper is a transition metal element with the chemical symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a reddish-orange malleable metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity.        
Copper Alloy  Metal alloys that have copper as their principal component.         
Copper Alloy Forgings Copper Forging is one of the major copper forming processes that deforms the shape of copper bars under high force to achieve desired shapes and dimensions. The typical process of small copper forgings is mainly closed die forged at high temperatures, which is called hot forging. Copper alloy forgings are available as open die forgings, hammer forgings, or precision rolled ring forgings depending on product needs and specifications. Copper alloys may be processed in a manner that will enhance the performance by using different forging techniques such as cold work, cross-grain, hot forge, upset, upset & cross-grain.         
Copper Bars Copper bars and copper rods are solid, straight uniform products of copper that are typically extruded and drawn. These products have cross-sections in a variety of shapes, from circular to hexagonal, square, and more.        
Copper Billet Copper billets are large pieces of pure copper that can be cut into smaller lengths in order to be extruded or forged as copper tubing, rod, or bar.        
C15000 Copper Zirconium alloy is a Class 1 welding electrode material with a high softening temperature. A small addition of zirconium to copper improves resistance to softening and resists deformation at high temperatures where normal copper would soften rapidly.  https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-zirconium-rwma-class1-c15000      
C15760 Dispersion strengthened copper is a dispersion of aluminum oxide within a copper matrix that exhibits good resistance to softening and room temperature properties consistent with RWMA Class 20. https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/dispersion-strengthened-copper-c15760      
C17200 Copper Beryllium is the highest strength copper alloy and is specified when the mechanical strength is the limiting design feature for a copper alloy. It is a heat treatable copper alloy having the unusual very combination of high hardness and strength and lower electrical conductivity than AWS J1.3/ RWMA Class 4 materials.  https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-beryllium-rwma-class-4-c17200      
C17510 Copper Nickel Beryllium is a very hard heat treatable copper alloy with moderate electrical conductivity consistent with Class 3 electrode material. C17510 can be utilized when a combination of very good mechanical strength along with moderate electrical and/or thermal conductivity is required https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-nickel-beryllium-class-3-c17510      
C18000 Copper Nickel Silicon Chromium is a very hard heat treatable copper with moderate electrical conductivity consistent with Class 3 electrode material. C18000 is utilized when a combination of very good mechanical strength along with moderate electrical and thermal electrical conductivity is required. It offers excellent value for the properties it offers and is a high-value substitute for C17500 and C17510 in many applications. https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-nickel-silicon-chromium-rwma-class-3-c18000      
C18150 Copper Chromium Zirconium has the addition of Zirconium to chromium copper to improve creep resistance at high operating temperatures and reduces sticking of electrodes to the work during spot welding of galvanized/coated materials. C18150 is specified mainly for electrode applications although it is now specified in many aerospace applications as heat flux components. Chromium Zirconium is an RWMA Class 2 material and is stronger and harder than the RWMA Class 1 materials. https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-chromium-zirconium-rwma-class-2-c18150      
C18200 Copper Chromium is the primary copper alloy used for resistance spot and seam welding. This alloy achieves good hardness and electrical conductivity through a combination of heat treatment and cold work. It is widely utilized for electrodes, holders, adaptors, as well as numerous electrical applications where resistance to deformation at high temperature is required or when higher mechanical properties than C11000 are required. https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-chromium-rwma-class-2-c18200      
Die  Part of press that punches shaped holes in, cuts, or forms sheet metal.        
Die Cutting  The application of a powerful die to a metal blank. Pressure from the stamping device is often applied by a mechanical or hydraulic press.        
Differential Pressure The Pressure on the top of the Cylinder (when present) minus the Pressure on the bottom of the Cylinder. In Resistance Welding, this would also be known as the Net Force, or Welding Force.        
Direct Drive In Resistance Welding, a method by which to drive a Seam Weld Head where a Motor, coupled to a Gear Reduction, is mechanically connected directly to the Seam Weld Head. Without some form of Feedback Device, as the Wheel Diameter changes due to wear, the Weld Speed is altered        
Direct Weld Weld Current is transferred from the Welding Transformer, through Secondary 1, through Electrode 1, through the Part, through Electrode 2, through Secondary 2, and back to the Welding Transformer.        
Displacement In Resistance Welding, the measurement of the Weld Nugget Growth (expansion) in a Spot Weld or the collapse of a Projection(s) in a Projection Weld.        
Double Bend Electrode These standard cold-formed electrodes are bent from straight electrodes (some after added machining) and have the same hardness and conductivity. They outlast, many times over, the old cast and forged electrodes of similar geometry, which are impossible to cool adequately. An electrode is a conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an object, substance, or region only with a bend. In Resistance Welding, the "throw away" Component, usually made of RWMA Copper Alloy, makes contact with the work while under the applied Welding Force. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/double-bend-electrodes      
Down-Slope In a Resistance Welding Control, the gradual "ramping down" of the Weld Current directly after Weld Time or Heat Time.        
Drawing The process of pulling flat products, rods, wires, tubes, shapes, etc through a die. This effects a reduction in size or change in the shape of the cross-section and cold works the material.         
Ductility The ability of a metal to endure change without fracturing. Hardness and the tensile strength of the metal often determine its ductility.        
Duty Cycle In Resistance Welding, the On-Time of the Welding Transformer or IGBT vs the Off Time relative to a production environment.        
E          
Electrode A conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an object, substance, or region. In Resistance Welding, the "throw away" Component, usually made of RWMA Copper Alloy, makes contact with the work while under the applied Welding Force. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes      
Electrode Adaptor Electrode Adapters are used to improve electrode holder life and flexibility by allowing the adapter to be replaced when the taper wears out. Electrode Adapters can mount to a holder via threads or RWMA tapers. Electrode Adapters designed for use with Muti-Spot Barrels have an o-ring to prevent leaking. The standard electrode adapters are made from RWMA Class 2 alloy.   https://www.cadicompany.com/cylinder-mounted-components/electrode-adapters-2      
Electrode Holders May be straight or offset.  Used to hold electrodes while welding.  Straight electrodes may include an ejector.  Holders may be used in single head machines or multi-head machines. https://www.cadicompany.com/cylinder-mounted-components/electrode-holders-and-clamps-lugs      
Electrolytic Tough Pitch (ETP) Copper 99.9% pure high conductivity wrought copper with a conductivity of 100% IACS.        
Expulsion Also known as "Flashing". During the Welding Sequence, molten metal is projected due to lack of Weld Pressure, excessive Weld Current, or contamination on the Weld Face of the Electrode(s).        
Extrusion   A method of creating a metal shape with a uniform cross-section under compressive force, by pushing metal (hot or cold) through a die.         
           
F          
Fast Follow Up In Resistance Welding, a term describing the capability of the Movable Electrode to react to the expansion of the Weld Nugget or the Collapse of a Projection(s) during the Welding Sequence        
Female Welding Caps & Shanks Caps and shanks are a two-part alternative to straight electrodes in which the shank can be reused many times. Resistance welding cap technology gives the end-user an economical, efficient alternative to standard electrodes. Resistance welding caps both female and male are usually used in high volume and automated applications. In press welders, resistance welding caps and shanks are frequently used to reduce copper electrode costs. A male resistance welding cap is differentiated from a female by the male attachment taper that extends from the body of the electrode. In a female resistance welding cap, the attachment taper is internal to the body. Female and male resistance welding caps are functionally nearly identical.  https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/female-welding-caps-and-shanks      
Flash Welding A welding process in which the ends of two metal parts are fused by heat generated from their resistance to an electric current and applied pressure.        
Flashing Copper sheet that is used in construction in order to prevent or divert water penetration.        
Flow Control A Device integrated into the pneumatic System of a Resistance Welding Machine is used to control the speed at which the stroke of an Air Cylinder travels to reduce impact.        
Force Gauge An instrument used to measure the actual Welding Force at the Electrodes.        
Forge Force In a Differential Pressure System, The Gross Force or the Forge Force present at the Electrodes when the Pressure at the bottom of the Cylinder is "dumped" at a precise moment during the Welding Sequence. This higher Force assures the integrity of the Welded Joint.        
G          
Gang Welding  Making several welds simultaneously.         
Grain A solid crystal consisting of groups of atoms bound together in a regular geometric pattern (In Mill practice grains are usually studied only as they appear on one plane).         
Gun Transformer A standard Welding Transformer with a higher than normal Secondary Voltage (up to 20 Volts) in order to accommodate Voltage Drops present in lengthy Weld Cables.        
H          
Half Cycling In Resistance Welding, an electronic malfunction in the Welding Control Circuitry (usually the SCR) resulting in Core Saturation of the AC Welding Transformer most noticeable by a distinct grunting noise and lack of Welding Current during the Welding Sequence.        
Heat Decay In a Low-Frequency Converter Welding Machine such as a SCIAKY, Heat Decay is a timing function of the Welding Control to allow for the stored energy in the Welding Transformer to dissipate between Impulses. Lack of Heat Decay may result in the misfiring of one SCR causing the Welding Transformer to "Thump" or in extreme cases, knock out the Breaker.        
Heat Time In Resistance Welding, Heat Time denotes the amount of time in which the Welding Transformer is Short-Circuited or Conducting through the Base Materials. The Time Base is programmed into the Welding Control in Cycles (1/50th or 1/60th of a second) or milliseconds. 1 Cycle is equal to 16 milliseconds in a 60 Hz Frequency and 20 milliseconds in a 50 Hz Frequency.        
Heat Treating  An application of heat to a metal to change properties or relieve internal stress.          
High Conductivity Copper High Conductivity Copper – Standard copper that is used in electrical applications, capable of 100% electrical conductivity.        
Hold Time Administered by the Welding Control, the time duration after Heat Time in which the Welding Electrodes are held at the applied Welding Force prior to release. Programmable in Cycles. (1 Cycle = 1/60 of a second or 16 milliseconds).        
Hot Working The process of changing the form or cross-section of a piece of metal at a temperature above its recrystallization temperature.         
Hydroforming A method of forming that involves using hydraulic pressure on sheet metal placed between a male die and a rubber piece.        
I          
IGBT Short for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor. In a Medium Frequency Inverter Welding Control, a device is used to convert a Rectified D.C. Primary Voltage into an A.C. Medium Frequency (1K Hz) Primary Voltage which drives the Welding Transformer during the Welding Sequence.        
Indirect Weld Similar to a Direct Weld except Electrode 1 makes contact with the part at a location other than at the actual Weld Interface. This method is usually utilized as a consequence of Part Geometry.        
Injection Blow Molding Is the process for manufacturing predominantly hollow objects with rotational symmetry using polymers. In this multilevel process, a preform is first produced using an injection molding process. Blow molding is the process of inflating a hot, hollow, thermoplastic preform or parison inside a closed mold, so its shape conforms to that of the mold cavity. A wide variety of blow molded hollow parts, including plastic bottles, can be produced from many different plastics using this process. The major difference between injection molding and blow molding is the kind of product produced. Typically, blow molding is designed to produce hollow, singular containers, such as bottles. On the other hand, injection molding is used to produce solid pieces, such as plastic products. https://www.cadicompany.com/accessories/injection-blow-mold-thermo-form-tooling-mold-mor      
Insert Molding The injection of molten plastic into the surrounding area of metal stamping parts in order to combine the stamping parts into a single piece.  https://www.cadicompany.com/accessories/injection-blow-mold-thermo-form-tooling-mold-mor      
International Annealed Copper Standards (IACS) Standard conductivity of annealed copper where 100% conductivity is defined as 58 MS/m at 68 degrees F [20 degrees C] (MS/m mega siemens/meter).        
Inverter Also known as M.F.D.C. (Medium Frequency Direct Current), The newest Technology In Resistance Welding, where the Secondary Welding Current is a highly concentrated pure D.C. Output precisely controlled in real time during the entire Welding Sequence. Inverter Technology is more efficient than standard A.C. Systems due to a high Power Factor which can significantly lower operational costs as a result of Reduced Primary Demand. Today, Inverter Technology leads the way in the advancement of total Process Control in the Resistance Welding Industry.        
Irregular Shaped Electrode  Many times these are forged or cast electrodes that are not easily machined. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/irregular-shaped-electrodes      
J          
JIC Short for Joint Industrial Council. JIC Standards were written in the early 1950s by a joint committee of major machine tool builders and users. The purpose was to provide a uniform set of basic practices which would result in a well-built machine tool. Four standards were written: Electrical (EMP-1-67/EGP-1-67); Electronic EL-11-1971); Hydraulic (H-1-1973); and Pneumatic (P-1-1975).        
K          
Kickless Cable Also known as a Dual Conductor Welding Cable. Copper conductor ropes insulated from each other are arranged in alternate polarity relationship to achieve an excellent balance of electrical forces which virtually reduces the pulsing vibration or "KICK".        
Knurl Drive In a Seam Welder, the method by which to drive one or both Weld Wheels. Two advantages of a Knurl Drive are Constant Wheel Speed regardless of change in Wheel Diameter and continuous Dressing of the Weld Wheel via the Knurl Drive.        
KVA Short for Kilo-Volt-Amp. In Resistance Welding, KVA denotes Rating or Size of a Resistance Welding Machine. Actually, KVA is the Kilo-Volt-Amp Capacity of the Welding Transformer.        
L          
Laminated Shunt Constructed of Copper Laminations, the Flexible Joint on the Secondary of a Resistance Welding Machine to accommodate the Movable Electrode. https://www.cadicompany.com/accessories/special-application-shunts      
Laminating Bonding, usually with adhesives, of metal sheet or strip alloys to various substrates, including aluminum, plywood, and steel. The resulting product is often very strong.        
Lead Time The amount of time from product order to product availability that it takes to complete product manufacture.         
Load Distribution In Resistance Welding, the capability of a single phase Welding Control to drive more than one Welding Transformer across more than one Phase in a single Welding Sequence.        
Longitudinal Seam Weld A welded joint along the length of the overlapping Base Metal(s).        
LVC Short for Line Voltage Compensation. The capability of the Welding Control to compensate for abnormal fluctuations in Supply Power that may occur during the Welding Sequence.        
M          
Male Welding Caps and Shanks Caps and shanks are a two-part alternative to straight electrodes in which the shank can be reused many times. Resistance welding cap technology gives the end-user an economical, efficient alternative to standard electrodes. Resistance welding caps both female and male are usually used in high volume and automated applications. In press welders, resistance welding caps and shanks are frequently used to reduce copper electrode costs. A male resistance welding cap is differentiated from a female by the male attachment taper that extends from the body of the electrode. In a female resistance welding cap, the attachment taper is internal to the body. Female and male resistance welding caps are functionally nearly identical.  https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/male-welding-caps-and-shanks      
Malleable Able to be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking.         
Mechanical Treatments Treatments done to finish metal surfaces, including grinding, polishing and buffing.        
Metallurgy The study of the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their alloy mixtures.        
Mil-Spec Welding A Resistance Welding Standard developed and published by and for the United States Military as a basis for Quality Assurance of Critical Resistance Welded Joints. Most Aerospace Manufacturers adhere to Mil-Spec Resistance Welding Standards and Guidelines.        
Mold-Mor® Is a Cadi Company trademarked system of copper alloys offering the optimum combination of thermal conductivity and durability required for cost-effective plastic molding.  https://www.cadicompany.com/accessories/injection-blow-mold-thermo-form-tooling-mold-mor      
Monitoring In Resistance Welding, to oversee actual results of specific data such as: Secondary Weld Current, Secondary Weld Voltage at the Electrodes, Secondary Resistance, Welding Force, and Displacement during the entire Welding Sequence.        
Multi-tip Electrode As the name implies, an electrode with multiple weld faces. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/multi-tip-electrodes-gang-welding      
Mushrooming Occurs when the Welding Electrodes loose shape as a result of Weld Force and Weld Current. This is unavoidable and can be maintained by properly dressing the Electrodes.        
N          
NEC Short for National Electrical Code. A standard for the safe installation of electrical wiring and equipment.        
Non-Ferrous Metal A metal, such as copper, nickel, aluminum or zinc, in which iron is not the main component.  https://www.cadicompany.com/refractory-metals      
Nose Type In Resistance Welding, the RWMA description of the Welding Electrode Geometry.        
Nugget Expansion The growth of the Welded Joint that can be measured during the Welding Sequence.        
O          
Off Time In Resistance Welding, Off Time denotes the amount of time in which the Electrodes open after the Welding Sequence and remain open prior to the welding sequence automatically repeating. Programmable in Cycles. (1 Cycle = 1/60 of a second or 16 milliseconds). Weld controls set to "Repeat" mode will use Off time.         
Offset  A displacement of a precision CNC machining tool along an axial direction the same as the difference between the real length and the inputted CNC milling tool length.        
Offset Electrode Holder

A holder designed to move the electrode weld face from the centerline of the holder.  Offset electrode holders are available for press and rocker arm welders or as a cylinder mounted holder on multi-gun machines.

       
Orange Peel Surface Surface roughness resulting from deformation of large metal grains.         
OSHA Short for Occupational Safety & Health Administration. Federally funded by the U.S. Government, OSHA constitutes and governs standards for Workplace Environments to protect all Laborers from work related injury or death caused by faulty equipment or worker negligence.        
P          
Pass Through In Resistance Welding, a type of Multi-Spot Welding Machine that allows for the Part, as it is welded, to "Pass" or "Index" Through the Machine for production purposes.        
Patina The natural copper coating that results from atmospheric corrosion.        
Ped Welder See Press Welder. Ped is short for Pedestal.        
Percent Heat In Resistance Welding, a programmable parameter in the Welding Control that is used to increase or decrease the Secondary Weld Current.        
Phase Rotation Synching the Three Phase Power Source with the Resistance Welding Machine. Proper Phase Rotation is essential on Frequency Converter Resistance Welding Machines.        
Plain Copper Also known as Alloy 110. In Resistance Welding, Alloy 110 Copper is the base material used to construct the Secondary Welding Circuit.        
Plate  A flat rolled product over .19in [5mm] in thickness and typically over 12m [0.3m] in width.        
Platen On a Press Welder, a T-Slotted Base on the upper and lower Secondary used to attach tooling for part specific applications.        
PLC Short for Programmable Logic Controller. A fully programmable CPU that is used to administer machine function in an industrial and automated environment.        
Powder Metallurgy The process by which metals are mixed in powder form and heated into a solid, heterogeneous material.        
Power Factor The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power to the apparent power and is a number between 0 to 1 inclusive. The significance of power factor lies in the fact that utility companies supply customers with volt-amperes, but bill them for watts. Power factors below 1.0 require a utility to generate more than the minimum volt-amperes necessary to supply the real power (watts). This increases generation and transmission costs. Good power factor is considered to be greater than 0.85 or 85%. Utilities may charge additional costs to customers who have a power factor below some limit.        
Press Welder A Type of Resistance Welding Machine where the Weld Cylinder is directly connected to the movable Electrode resulting in a smooth and guided method of generating Weld Force.        
Process Control In Resistance Welding, to refine a Weld Schedule and continuously verify the results using a capable Weld Monitoring Instrument.        
Projection A stamped Protrusion in a piece of metal.        
Projection Weld In Resistance Welding, to set down or burn-in a projection using a suitable Welding Current and Force. This process is normally used in applications where part geometry prohibits typical Spot Welding        
Pull Test A destructive test is used to validate the strength of a Welded Joint. The Test is usually performed using a Pull Tester which measures and displays the results.        
Push-Pull Push-Pull is a manner of welding that uses two transformers.  The Negative terminal from one transformer is aligned with a Positive terminal from the other.  This creates a direct weld.  Push Pull configurations are used when the throat depth is unacceptably large.        
Q          
Quench Time In Resistance Welding, Quench Time is the time lapse between Heat Time and Temper Time also known as Post Heat. The Time Base is programmed into the Welding Control in Cycles (1/50th or 1/60th of a second) or milliseconds. 1 Cycle is equal to 16 milliseconds in a 60 Hz Frequency and 20 milliseconds in a 50 Hz Frequency.        
R          
R.O.T.F. Short for Rough Oversized to Finish. A term used when ordering Forged Copper Weld Wheel Blanks. The machined O.D. and Thickness of the Wheel is given as the R.O.T.F. dimensions when ordering.        
Ram A Mechanical Link which guides and transfers the Welding Force from the Weld Cylinder to the Upper Electrode or Tooling.        
Refractory Metal High density metal having a melting point above 3600 degrees F [2000 degrees C] and high hardness at room temperature.  https://www.cadicompany.com/refractory-metals      
Refractory Metal-Faced Electrodes  An electrode is a conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an object, substance, or region. A refractory metal is......Refractory metal faced tips or electrodes are designed to withstand greater heat and pressure at the expense of some conductivity. They are used to spot weld high resistance base metals or to achieve desired heat balance when welding dissimilar materials, or for resistance brazing. HELP https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/refractory-metal-faced-electrodes      
Repeat In a Resistance Welding Control, to continually sequence the weld schedule as the Initiation switch is held closed when the Repeat Switch is in the on position. See Off Time.        
Resistance Weld See Spot Weld. https://www.cadicompany.com/about-resistance-welding-how-it-works      
Resistance Welding Die Also called flash welding. A resistance welding electrode matching the contour of the workpiece to clamp or shape the workpieces and conduct welding current.         
Resistance Welding Electrode The part of a secondary circuit responsible for the transmission of welding current and force of the workpieces. The electrode may be in the form of a rotating wheel, rotating roll, bar, cylinder, plate, clamp, or modification thereof.  https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes      
Retraction An option available on most Resistance Welding Machines. Retraction is an extended Electrode Opening for the purpose of accommodating Parts with geometry too large to enter into the standard Electrode Opening which is usually 1/4" - 3/8" approx.        
Ring Forging Is the process of manipulating metal into a hallow circular or cylindrical "ring" shape by applying localized, compressive force.         
Rise Time In an Inverter Welding Control, Rise Time refers to the time required, in milliseconds, for the Secondary Welding Current to change from zero to the programmed value.        
Rocker Arm Spot Welder A Type of Resistance Welding Machine where the Weld Cylinder is indirectly connected to the movable Electrode through a Fulcrum.        
Rod A round, hexagonal or octagonal sold section furnished in straight lengths.         
Roll Forming The process of pressing metal sheet or strip between rollers.        
Roller Ram A low inertia precision Mechanical Link which guides and transfers the Welding Force from the Weld Cylinder to the Upper Electrode or Tooling.        
RWMA The Resistance Welding Manufacturers Alliance, commonly known as the RWMA, is a standing committee of the American Welding Society (AWS) focused on promoting the use of resistance welding technology through education, training, and defining standards).         
RWMA C15000 See C15000 https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-zirconium-rwma-class1-c15000      
RWMA C17510 See C17510 https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-nickel-beryllium-class-3-c17510      
RWMA C17200 See C17200 https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-beryllium-rwma-class-4-c17200      
RWMA C18000 See C18000 https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-nickel-silicon-chromium-rwma-class-3-c18000      
RWMA C18150 See C18150 https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-chromium-zirconium-rwma-class-2-c18150      
RWMA C18200 See C18200 https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-chromium-rwma-class-2-c18200      
RWMA C15760 See C15760 https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/dispersion-strengthened-copper-rwma-class-20-c15760      
RWMA Class 1 Copper Alloy  Copper Zirconium (C15000) is superior to pure copper as an electrode material and is recommended as a general-purpose material for resistance welding use. It may be used for spot welding electrodes, seam welding wheels and welding fixture components. It is not heat treatable. Good for electrodes for welding aluminum alloys, brass and bronzes, coated materials and magnesium alloys.  Can be used for both spot and seam welding. https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-zirconium-rwma-class1-c15000      
RWMA Class 2 Copper Alloy  Copper Chromium (C18200) and Copper Chromium Zirconium (C18150) is a superior resistance welding electrode material, recommended for high-production operations. It's used for welding electrodes, projection welding dies, seam welding shafts and bearings, flash and butt welding dies, and current-carrying structural components. These materials are stronger than Class 1 material, have slightly lower conductivity.  They are used for spot and seam welding of cold and hot rolled steel, stainless steel and low conductivity brass and bronze.  Good for flash welding dies, and as electrodes for the welding of galvanized steel and other coated materials. https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-chromium-rwma-class-2-c18200      
RWMA Class 3 Copper Alloy Copper Nickel Silicon Chromium (C18000) and Copper Nickel Beryllium (C17510) (Beryllium Free Copper) is a very hard, heat-treatable copper with moderate electrical conductivity that is ideal for use as seam weld wheels, projection welding dies, flash and but welding dies, current-carrying shafts and bushings, high stressed structural current- carrying members, electrode holders, and high pressure electrodes where the welding material has a high electrical resistance. Their high hardness makes them ideal electrodes for spot and seam welding of high resistance materials such as stainless steels, Nichrome, Inconel, and Monel.  As a casting, they are used for flash, butt and projection welding electrodes and fixtures.  Good for welding gun components, seam welding bearings and other current carrying structural parts.  https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-nickel-silicon-chromium-rwma-class-3-c18000      
RWMA Class 4 Copper Alloy Copper Beryllium (C17200) has extremely high hardness and is recommended for projection, flash and butt-welding dies. It has lower conductivity than Class III alloy but is harder and more wear resistant. It should be considered where there is concern with high-pressure density and severe wear, but where heating,  due to low conductivity is not excessive. It is frequently used in the form of inserts, die facings, and seam welder bushings. It is available in the annealed condition, which is more readily machined then the subsequently heat-treaded condition. Good for flash, upset-butt and projection welding applications where pressures are extremely high and wear is severe, but where heat is not excessive.  They are used frequently in the form of inserts and facings.  They may also be used for seam welding bushings. Strength, mechanical wear and conduction is their strong attributes. https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/copper-beryllium-rwma-class-4-c17200      
RWMA Class 20 Alloy Dispersion Strengthened Copper (C15760) has exceptional resistance to deformation when welding and it is highly recommended for weld caps when welding coated and galvanized steels. It allows a stable start-up and generally outlasts other cap materials when welding parameters are not carefully controlled. Good for welding of metallic coated metal such as galvanized steel, terne plate, etc. https://www.cadicompany.com/copper-alloys/dispersion-strengthened-copper-rwma-class-20-c15760      
RWMA Class 10 A composite of 45% copper and 55% the refractory metal tungsten.  The tungsten provides the structural strength and heat resistance while the copper is the electrical and heat conductor.  This combination produces dense, hard metals of superior wear resistance and strength at elevated temperatures.  In addition, they possess good thermal and electrical conductivity. Good for flash and butt welding electrodes where good electrical and thermal conductivity is necessary and where a degree of malleability is desired. https://www.cadicompany.com/refractory-metals/copper-tungsten-rwma-class-10      
RWMA Class 11 A composite of 25% copper and 75% the refractory metal tungsten.   The tungsten provides the structural strength and heat resistance while the copper is the electrical and heat conductor.  This combination produces dense, hard metals of superior wear resistance and strength at elevated temperatures.  In addition, they possess good thermal and electrical conductivity. Projection welding electrodes, flash and butt welding electrodes, light upsetting and seam welding bushings.  Harder than Class 10 and used where moderate pressure is required.  This material can also be used for spot welding low conductivity steels, such as stainless. https://www.cadicompany.com/refractory-metals/copper-tungsten-rwma-class-11      
RWMA Class 12 A composite of 20% copper and 80% the refractory metal tungsten.  The tungsten provides the structural strength and heat resistance while the copper is the electrical and heat conductor.  This combination produces dense, hard metals of superior wear resistance and strength at elevated temperatures.  In addition, they possess good thermal and electrical conductivity. Good for heavy duty projection welding electrodes, electro-forming and electro forging electrode facings for upsetting of studs and rivets, cross wire welding of large diameter wire and rod. https://www.cadicompany.com/refractory-metals/copper-tungsten-rwma-class-12      
RWMA Class 13 Tungsten is extremely hard and has low ductility.  In addition, tungsten is very heat resistant and maintains its strength at very high temperatures.  It cannot be machined with cutting tools but can be ground to required contours.  It does not alloy with nonferrous materials.  Good for Cross wire welding of copper and brass, resistance brazing and some upsetting.  Welding of braided copper wire to other materials. https://www.cadicompany.com/refractory-metals/tungsten-rwma-class-13      
RWMA Class 14 Molybdenum is not as hard as Class 13 and can be drilled and machined to special contours.  Has similar heat resistance approaching Class 13 capabilities and very good strength at elevated temperatures.  Good for cross wire welding of copper and brass, resistance brazing and some upsetting.  Welding of braided copper wire to other materials. https://www.cadicompany.com/refractory-metals/molybdenum-rwma-class-14      
S          
Scissor Gun In Resistance Welding, a Portable Weld Gun which is based on the same mechanical principles as a Rocker Arm Spot Welder.        
SCR Short for Silicon Controlled Rectifier. A 4-layer solid state device that controls current flow. In an A.C. Resistance Welding Machine, a SCR is used to switch the Welding Transformer on during Heat Time.        
Seam Weld Is the joining of work pieces made of similar or dissimilar materials along a continuous seam. Seam welding can be broken down into two main techniques, resistance seam welding and friction seam welding. A uniform continuous chain of resistance welds. The welding electrodes are usually in the form of copper wheels which index the base metals at a precise rate of speed to perform a very consistent welded joint. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/seam-weld-wheels-blanks      
Seam Weld Wheels  Seam welding is the joining of work pieces made of similar or dissimilar materials along a continuous seam. Seam welding can be broken down into two main techniques, resistance seam welding and friction seam welding. A seam weld is a continuous weld along a joint, unlike a spot weld that uses a single point electrode, a seam weld uses a rotating wheel electrode that produces a rolling resistance weld. This process is most often used to join two sheets of metal. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/seam-weld-wheels-blanks      
Secondary Circuit In Resistance Welding, the entire Electrical Connection and Structure that is attached to the Secondary of the Welding Transformer.        
Single Bend Electrode These standard cold-formed electrodes are bent from straight electrodes (some after added machining) and have the same hardness and conductivity. They outlast, many times over, the old cast and forged electrodes of similar geometry, which are impossible to cool adequately. An electrode is a conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an object, substance, or region only with a bend. In Resistance Welding, the "throw away" Component, usually made of RWMA Copper Alloy, which makes contact with the work while under the applied Welding Force. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/single-bend-electrodes      
Sleeve Bearing Head In Resistance Welding, a type of Seam Weld Head usually constructed of a Class III Copper Shaft which rotates in Class II Copper Sleeve Bearings. Conductive Grease is used to minimize friction and allow smooth Shaft rotation.        
Softening Temperature The maximum temperature that if maintained for 2 h will result in a reduction in ambient temperature hardness exceeding 15% of the "as received" value.         
Soldering A method of joining up to 840F that is used for joining metals and creating watertight applications, such as for roofing and gutters.        
Special Application Shunts A shunt is a device that creates a low-resistance path for electric current, to allow it to pass around another point in the circuit.  https://www.cadicompany.com/accessories/special-application-shunts      
Spinning It works by contacting copper alloy electrodes to the sheet surfaces, whereby pressure and electric current are applied, and heat is generated by the passage of current through resistive materials such as low carbon steels.        
Spot Welding  Spot welding (also known as resistance spot welding) is a resistance welding process. This welding process is used primarily for welding two or more metal sheets together by applying pressure and heat from an electric current to the weld area. Spot welding works through conductive heating, which is created by an electrical current. Classic spot welding positions two copper alloy electrodes, which hold the two pieces of metal together. The electrical current flows through the electrodes, creating concentrated heat to melt the metal.        
Squeeze Time The time allotted for the Movable Electrode to make contact with the work and develop the required Welding Force. Programmable in Cycles. (1 Cycle = 1/60 of a second or 16 milliseconds)        
Stamping Using a die in a press or a hammer to shape metal sheet or strip.        
Standard Straight Welding Electrodes These Standard straight electrodes have hardness and conductivity. They outlast, many times over, the old cast and forged electrodes of similar geometry, which are impossible to cool adequately. An electrode is a conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an object, substance, or region. In Resistance Welding, the "throw away" Component, usually made of RWMA Copper Alloy, which makes contact with the work while under the applied Welding Force. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/standard-straight-welding-electrodes      
Stepper A programmable function in the Welding Control which automatically increases or decreases the Welding Current in programmed Step Counts based on the rate of Electrode wear.        
Stud & Nut Welding Electrodes  Electrodes specifically developed for use in manual or automatic machines to facilitate the accurate placement of studs and nuts prior to welding. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/stud-nut-welding-electrodes      
Surface Resistance The Electrical Resistance at the surface of the Base Metal prior to Resistance Welding.        
Swivel Electrode A Back-Up Electrode used on a Rocker Arm Spot Welder for producing Cosmetic Welds. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/backup-and-swivel-electrodes      
T          
Temper Designation A standardized system for denoting the mechanical properties as related to the process history of metals.         
Temper Heat The programmable time in which the Temper Heat is applied during the Welding Sequence.        
Temper Time In a Resistance Welding Machine, the Throat Depth accommodates the physical dimensions of the Work at the Welded Joint and is defined as: the unobstructed reach from the Electrodes to the Machine        
Tensile Strength Also referred to as “ultimate strength,” it is the maximum amount of stress a material can endure.        
Threaded Tips These tips have a threaded connection, rather than a tapered fit, for attaching to the adapter or holder. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/threaded-tips      
Tip See Electrode        
Tip Dresser A Tool designed to clean and reface a Resistance Welding Electrode.        
Trans Gun A Weld Gun with an integrated, on-board Welding Transformer. Also known as Robot Weld Gun or Roboterpunktschweißung Gewehr.        
Turns Ratio In a Resistance Welding Transformer, the Ratio of Primary Windings to Secondary Windings. Usually, the Secondary is 1 (ie 50:1, 50 Turns primary to 1 Turn Secondary).        
U          
Upset A term used in Butt Welding, where the square end of one wire is forced, under pressure, into the square end of another wire during the Welding Sequence. The end result is a welded joint with a minor bulge around the circumference of the wire at the connection.        
Up-Slope In Resistance Welding, a programmable parameter in the Welding Control that is used to gradually ramp up the Welding Current to "Burn Through" the coating of Galvanized, Galvanneal, or Aluminized Sheet Metal.        
W          
Water Chiller In Resistance Welding, a programmable stand-alone Water Recirculating System that provides precise temperature-controlled water-cooling to the Resistance Welding Machine and Electrodes/Weld Wheels. https://www.cadicompany.com/accessories/weld-controls-water-chillers      
Water Cooled Cables Power cables, connecting the transformer secondary to the electrode holders, with a water tight flexible covering.  Chilled water is ported in one end and out the other. https://www.cadicompany.com/accessories/water-cooled-cables      
Water Tubes Water Tubes are found in the various holders and are used to direct cold water to the water hole of the electrode. https://www.cadicompany.com/cylinder-mounted-components/water-tubes-2      
Weld Controls Weld Controls direct the operation of the resistance welder.  They control the pneumatic valve(s), transformer(s), and other I/O as needed by the machine. https://www.cadicompany.com/accessories/weld-controls-water-chillers      
Weld Face The physical area of the Electrode or Weld Wheel that makes contact with the Work. The Weld Face directly influences the size and characteristics of the Weld Nugget.        
Weld Force The required physical Force at the Electrodes, Tooling, or Seam Welding Wheels during the Welding Sequence to produce a qualified Resistance Welded Joint.        
Weld Force Gauge An Instrument used to measure Weld Force at the Electrodes or Seam Welding Wheels.        
Weld Gap In a Resistance Welding Machine, the Weld Gap accommodates the physical dimensions of the Work at the Welded Joint and is defined as: the unobstructed area between the Upper and Lower Secondary.        
Weld Nugget The created tangible Joint of two or more separate base metals produced by a Resistance Welding Machine.        
Weld Time Begins automatically after Squeeze Time. The time allotted for the Electrical Source to "short circuit" or "conduct" through the stack of weldable metals under applied force. Programmable in Cycles. (1 Cycle = 1/60 of a second or 16 milliseconds).        
Weld Wheel A round Electrode used on a Resistance Seam Welder to produce uniform in-line Welds. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/seam-weld-wheels-blanks      
Welding Cable A high-capacity flexible Conductor used to transfer Welding Current from the Welding Transformer to a Weld Gun. Welding Cables are constructed of Hi-Con Copper Rope and can be water-cooled to reduce the physical size of the Cable.        
Welding Control In resistance welding, a micro-processor based Electronic Device responsible for administering precise Resistance Welding Timing Sequences and magnitude of Welding Current.        
Welding Current In Resistance Welding, a Unit of Measurement (Ampere) of Heat Intensity during the Welding Sequence is required to make a successful weld.        
Welding Transformer The Main Component in a Resistance Welding Machine which generates the required Welding Current by "short-circuiting" through the Part Interface. The Size or Rating of the Welding Transformer is based on the physical Kilo-Volt-Ampere (KVA) capacity and efficiency of the Device.        
Wire Mesh Welding Dies Dies, or electrodes, specific to the Wire Mesh welding industry. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/wire-mesh-welding-dies-electrodes      
Wire Mesh Welding Electrodes See Wire Mesh Welding Dies above. https://www.cadicompany.com/electrodes/wire-mesh-welding-dies-electrodes      
X          
X Gun A Weld Gun where the Weld Cylinder is indirectly connected to the movable Electrode through a Fulcrum.        
Z          
Zero Gravity Balancer In a manual Resistance Weld Gun Station, an adjustable suspension system allows the Weld Gun to float at a desired work level for ease of manipulation.        
Zirconium Electrode An Electrode used for Welding Galvanized, Galvanneal, or Aluminized Coated Sheet Metals. The Zirconium Electrode provides a non-stick Weld Face Surface which reduces Tip Contamination caused by the burn-off of the Coating during the Welding Sequence.